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Navigating the Unfair Contract Terms Regime in Australia: A Guide for Businesses

Australia's legal landscape for consumer and business contracts has undergone a significant transformation with the recent amendments to its competition and consumer laws, particularly focusing on Unfair Contract Terms (UCT). Effective from 9 November 2023, the New UCT Regime brings forth crucial changes that businesses must be aware of to stay compliant and avoid substantial penalties.

Key Changes in the New UCT Regime

Expansion of 'Standard Form' Contract Definition: The New UCT Regime broadens the scope of what constitutes a 'standard form' contract. These are generally contracts where terms are not subject to much negotiation, often offered on a 'take it or leave it' basis. The new definition includes contracts even if there are minor negotiations or choices between pre-set options.

Wider Coverage for 'Small Businesses': The threshold for what defines a 'small business' has significantly increased. Now, businesses with less than 100 employees, or an annual turnover of less than $10 million, fall under this category, thereby widening the scope of contracts subject to the UCT scrutiny.

Legal Prohibition of Unfair Contract Terms: It's now unlawful to propose, apply, or rely on an unfair contract term. This elevates the seriousness of ensuring fair contractual practices.

Introduction of Civil Penalties: Infringements can lead to severe financial consequences, with penalties reaching up to $2.5 million for individuals and greater amounts for companies, based on various criteria like benefit derived from the contravention.

Stronger Remedies: Beyond declaring an unfair term void, the court can now impose additional penalties for each unfair term identified in a contract.

Understanding the New Regime

What Contracts are Affected?

Contracts falling under the New UCT Regime are those deemed as 'consumer contracts' or 'small business contracts' that are also 'standard form'.

Identifying Standard Form Contracts

To determine if a contract is 'standard form', consider factors like the pre-existence of the contract, the level of negotiation involved, and whether the contract caters to the specific characteristics of the parties involved.

Consumer and Small Business Contracts

Consumer contracts remain largely unchanged, still pertaining to goods, services, or interests primarily for personal use. However, the definition of small business contracts now includes a broader range of businesses, considering employee numbers and annual turnover.

What Constitutes an Unfair Term?

An unfair term is one that creates a significant imbalance in the parties' rights and obligations, is not necessary to protect legitimate interests, and could cause detriment if relied upon. This includes terms allowing one party to avoid obligations, terminate the contract, penalize the other party, or unilaterally alter the contract.

Preparing for Compliance

Businesses have a 12-month grace period from 9 November 2023, to review and adjust their contracts to align with the New UCT Regime. This is a crucial step to avoid the risk of hefty penalties.

Penalties for Non-Compliance

The penalties for non-compliance are substantial, with individual fines up to $2.5 million and higher for companies, calculated based on various factors like the benefit obtained from the contravention.

The New UCT Regime marks a significant shift in Australian contract law, emphasizing fairer and more balanced contractual practices. Businesses must proactively review and adjust their contracts to ensure compliance and avoid the severe penalties associated with unfair contract terms. As always, seeking legal advice tailored to your specific circumstances is advisable.

Connect with us at Allied Legal on 03 8691 3111 or drop us an email at to discuss how we can assist you in complying with the UCT regime.

*The insights presented in this article are derived from ‘Are your standard terms and conditions unfair?’ published to Mondaq by Harrison Humphries on 14 December 2023.

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